The earth surface is uneven because of the interaction of three processes: 1.Endogenice Processes:- The Processes which originate from the interior of the earth curst.Like Tectonic Movement,Earthquake and Volcanism. 2.Exogenic Process:- The Processes or forces which originate out side the earth curst is known as the exogenic processes like Rivers, Glaciers, Wind etc. 3.Interaction of the human beings Gradation :- Bringing the earth surface into a common level is known as gradation.It has two components:- Degradation:- It is the process which brings the upheaval part of the earth surface to lower level by the exogenetic processes. It is the process of leveling down. Aggradation:- It is the process which fills up the depression of the earth’s surface by the exogenic processes. It is the process of leveling up. Geomorphic Processes:- The Physical Stress/Change or Chemical Action which bring chnges on the configuration or the features of the earth surface is called Geomorphic Processes.A Process is a force applied on the earth materials affecting them. Geomorphic Agents:- The geomorphic agents are the mobile agents which tansport the earth materials. Gravitation:-Apart from Geomorphic agents GRAVITATION is another force which helps transportation of earth materials it determine the direction of movement of earth materials. Gradient:- Gradient or the slope of the surface determine the movement of the materials. Materials move from the higher to the lower slope. Endogenic Processes
The energy which is released form the interior of the earth curst is the main force behind the Endogenic Processes. The energy generated from the earth’s interior are mainly from(i)Radioactivity(ii)Rotational and Tidal Friction(iii)Primordial Heat which exist since the origin of the earth.
Geothermal Gradient induce the Diastrophism ,Volcanism and Tectonic movement on the earth surface. Crustal surface is uneven because of :- (i)the Geothermal Gradient (ii)crustal thickness (iii)difference in strength,the action of the endogenic forces are uneven resulting uneven surface on the earth surface. Diastrophism All the processes which bring vast changes ,elevate or move a part of the earth crust are known as the Diastrophism. It has 4(Four) components:- 1. Orogenic Process:- This process is involved in folding of rocks and formation of mountains in a narrkow belt. Hence it is known as Mountain building processes. 2. Epeirogenic Process :- This process is involved in the upliftment or wrapping of the large portion of the earth crust. Hence it is also known as Continent Building force. 3. Earthquake:- It is involved in the small deformation of the earth curst. 4.Tectonic Movement:-It is involved in the horizontal movement of the earth crust changing the landforms. All the four components of Diastrophism are responsible for Faulting. Folding and Fracturing of the rocks and deforming the earth’s configuration and bring changes to the surface of the earth. These are involved in the change of Pressure, Volume and Temperature hence they are responsible for forming the metamorphic rocks. Volcanism During the volcanic eruption Lava and Magma spread over the earth surface and it forms the Table Land, Extrusive and Intrusive Igneous forms. Which sometimes pop -up in the form of outcrops etc. thus changing thelandforms. Exogenic Processess The exogenic processes originate in the sub-aerial part. All the exogenic processes derive their energy from the Sun. Gradient formed by the tectonic forces and Gravitation Force helps the movement of the earth materials down slopes. Stress:- Force applied in an unit area is called Stress. Stress is produced due to pulling or pushing on the earth’s materials. it induces deformation on the earth surface. Shear Stress:- Forces acting upon the earth’s material (gravitation, gradient,frictional force) which breaks the rock materials. shear stress results angular displacement( slippage) of earth materials. Apart from this earth materials are subjected to Molecular stress,temperature change andcystalisation and melting. Chemical change is also responsible for loosening ofrock materials which let to weathering and mass wasting. There are various climatic regions in the world , therefore,various geomorphic processes are involved in bringing changes on the earth surface. Geomorphic processes like running water,wind,glacier, tide,ground water etc. are operating in different regions. All the exogenic geomor[phic processes are termd in a single term Denudation. Denudation includes: a)Weathering b)Mass Wasting c) Erosion d) Transportation Land forms depends upon three factors:- 1.Structure 2.Processes 3.Stage of development. Intensity of exogenic geomorphic process depends upon: 1. Structure 2. Hardness 3. Softness 4.Presence of fold ,fault,fracture rocks. 5.Porosity of rocks 6.Chemical susceptibility. Weathering Weathering is a process by which rock materials are brokendown,tear down or decomposed by weather phenomena or the elements of weather.(temperature,rainfall,precipitation, freezing and thawing etc) Types of weathering Three are three types of weathering 1.Chemical Weathering 2.Physical Weathering 3.Biological Weathering Chemical Weathering is of four types:-(1)Solution (2) Hydration (3)Carbonation (4) Oxidation